COT: Google Sheets Formulae Explained

Google Sheets, a powerful tool in the Google Workspace, offers a myriad of functionalities that can transform the way you manage and analyze data. One of its most potent features is its extensive range of formulae. These formulae, when used correctly, can automate calculations, manipulate text, and even import data from the web. This guide aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of Google Sheets formulae, their usage, and their potential to enhance your data management capabilities.

Understanding Google Sheets Formulae

Google Sheets formulae are pre-defined instructions that perform specific calculations or tasks within your spreadsheet. They can range from simple arithmetic operations to complex functions that can analyze and manipulate data. Understanding how these formulae work can significantly enhance your productivity and efficiency when working with Google Sheets.

Each formula in Google Sheets begins with an equals sign (=), followed by the function name and a set of arguments enclosed in parentheses. The arguments are the values that the function will use to perform its calculation. For example, the formula =SUM(A1:A5) will add up the values in cells A1 through A5.

Types of Google Sheets Formulae

Google Sheets offers a wide range of formulae, each designed to perform a specific task. These can be broadly categorized into several types, including arithmetic, statistical, text, date and time, logical, and lookup and reference formulae.

Arithmetic formulae perform basic mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Statistical formulae, on the other hand, are used for more complex calculations such as averages, medians, and standard deviations. Text formulae allow you to manipulate and analyze text data, while date and time formulae help you work with dates and times. Logical formulae let you make decisions based on certain conditions, and lookup and reference formulae help you find specific data in your spreadsheet.

How to Use Google Sheets Formulae

Using Google Sheets formulae is a straightforward process. You simply need to enter the formula into a cell, and Google Sheets will automatically perform the calculation or task. However, it's important to understand the syntax and structure of the formulae to use them effectively.

As mentioned earlier, every formula starts with an equals sign, followed by the function name and its arguments. The arguments are enclosed in parentheses and are separated by commas. For example, the formula =AVERAGE(B2:B10) calculates the average of the values in cells B2 through B10.

Entering a Formula

To enter a formula, click on the cell where you want the result to appear, type an equals sign, and then type the function name. As you type, Google Sheets will display a list of functions that match what you've typed. You can select the function you want from this list.

After you've selected the function, type an opening parenthesis, and then enter the arguments. If the function requires more than one argument, separate them with commas. Once you've entered all the arguments, type a closing parenthesis and press Enter. Google Sheets will then calculate the result and display it in the cell.

Editing a Formula

If you need to modify a formula, simply click on the cell containing the formula, and the formula will appear in the formula bar at the top of the screen. You can then make any necessary changes and press Enter to recalculate the result.

It's also possible to copy and paste formulae in Google Sheets. When you copy a formula, Google Sheets automatically adjusts the cell references in the formula to match the new location. This feature, known as relative referencing, can save you a lot of time when working with large datasets.

Common Google Sheets Formulae

While Google Sheets offers hundreds of formulae, there are a few that are particularly useful and commonly used. Understanding these formulae can greatly enhance your ability to work with data in Google Sheets.


The SUM, AVERAGE, MIN, and MAX functions are some of the most basic and commonly used formulae in Google Sheets. They perform simple arithmetic operations on a range of cells. The SUM function adds up all the values in a range, the AVERAGE function calculates the average of the values, the MIN function finds the smallest value, and the MAX function finds the largest value.


The COUNT, COUNTA, and COUNTIF functions are used to count the number of cells in a range that meet certain criteria. The COUNT function counts the number of cells that contain numbers, the COUNTA function counts the number of cells that are not empty, and the COUNTIF function counts the number of cells that meet a specific condition.


The VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP functions are powerful tools for finding specific data in your spreadsheet. The VLOOKUP function looks for a value in the leftmost column of a range and returns a value in the same row from a column you specify. The HLOOKUP function works in a similar way, but it looks for a value in the top row of a range.


The IF, AND, and OR functions are logical functions that allow you to make decisions based on certain conditions. The IF function performs a certain action if a condition is true and another action if it's false. The AND function returns true if all its arguments are true, and the OR function returns true if at least one of its arguments is true.


Google Sheets formulae are powerful tools that can greatly enhance your ability to manage and analyze data. By understanding how these formulae work and how to use them effectively, you can automate calculations, manipulate text, and even import data from the web, making your work with Google Sheets more efficient and productive.

Whether you're a beginner just getting started with Google Sheets or an experienced user looking to enhance your skills, understanding Google Sheets formulae is a crucial step in mastering this powerful tool. So start experimenting with these formulae today, and discover the full potential of Google Sheets.

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