COLUMN: Google Sheets Formulae Explained

Google Sheets, a powerful tool in the Google Workspace suite, is a cloud-based spreadsheet program that rivals Microsoft Excel. Its strength lies not only in its collaborative features but also in its robust formulae capabilities. Understanding these formulae can help you manipulate data, perform complex calculations, and automate tasks, making your work more efficient and accurate.

Understanding Google Sheets Formulae

Google Sheets formulae are expressions that process values, perform operations, and return a result. They can range from simple arithmetic calculations to complex functions involving text manipulation, date and time processing, and logical comparisons. The key to mastering Google Sheets formulae is understanding their syntax and how they interact with cell references.

Each formula in Google Sheets starts with an equals sign (=), followed by the function name and a pair of parentheses. Inside these parentheses, you place the arguments for the function, which can be values, cell references, or even other functions. For example, the formula =SUM(A1:A10) adds up all the values in the range A1 to A10.

Common Google Sheets Formulae

Google Sheets supports a wide variety of formulae, each designed to perform a specific task. Let's explore some of the most commonly used ones.


The SUM, AVERAGE, MAX, and MIN functions are fundamental to any spreadsheet program, and Google Sheets is no exception. These functions perform basic mathematical operations on a range of cells. SUM adds up all the numbers, AVERAGE calculates the mean, MAX returns the highest value, and MIN returns the lowest value.

For example, if you have a list of sales figures in column A and you want to find the total, the average, the highest, and the lowest sales, you would use the following formulae: =SUM(A:A), =AVERAGE(A:A), =MAX(A:A), and =MIN(A:A), respectively.


The COUNT function is used to count the number of cells in a range that contain numbers. COUNTA, on the other hand, counts the number of cells that are not empty, regardless of their content. COUNTIF extends this functionality by allowing you to count cells based on a specific condition.

For instance, if you have a list of student grades in column B and you want to count how many students passed (grade above 60), you would use the formula =COUNTIF(B:B, ">60").

Advanced Google Sheets Formulae

While the basic formulae can handle most everyday tasks, Google Sheets also offers advanced functions for more complex calculations and data manipulation.


VLOOKUP (Vertical Lookup) and HLOOKUP (Horizontal Lookup) are powerful functions that search for a specific value in a column or row and return a corresponding value from a different column or row. These functions are particularly useful for cross-referencing data in large spreadsheets.

For example, if you have a product list in columns A to C, with column A containing product IDs, column B containing product names, and column C containing prices, you can use VLOOKUP to find the price of a product given its ID. The formula would be =VLOOKUP(D1, A:C, 3, FALSE), where D1 is the cell containing the product ID you're looking for.

IF, AND, OR, and NOT

The IF, AND, OR, and NOT functions allow you to perform logical operations in Google Sheets. IF tests a condition and returns one value if the condition is true and another value if it's false. AND and OR evaluate multiple conditions and return TRUE or FALSE. NOT reverses the value of a logical expression.

For example, if you want to classify students based on their grades, you could use the IF function like this: =IF(B1>=60, "Pass", "Fail"). This formula checks if the grade in cell B1 is greater than or equal to 60. If it is, it returns "Pass"; otherwise, it returns "Fail".

Using Google Sheets Formulae Effectively

Mastering Google Sheets formulae requires practice and patience. Start with simple formulae and gradually move on to more complex ones. Remember to use cell references instead of hardcoding values into your formulae to make them more flexible and easier to update.

Also, make use of Google Sheets' formula auto-completion feature, which suggests functions as you type and provides brief descriptions of what they do. This can be a great way to discover new functions and learn how to use them.

Finally, don't forget that Google Sheets is a collaborative tool. You can share your spreadsheets with others and work on them together in real-time. This can be a great way to learn from others and improve your formula skills.


Google Sheets formulae are a powerful tool for data analysis and automation. Whether you're a student, a business professional, or a data analyst, mastering these formulae can help you work more efficiently and accurately. So start experimenting with these functions today and unlock the full potential of Google Sheets!

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