CHOOSE: Google Sheets Formulae Explained

Google Sheets, a powerful tool in the Google Workspace suite, offers a wide range of formulae to help you manipulate, analyze, and visualize your data. These formulae, when understood and used correctly, can turn a simple spreadsheet into a dynamic and insightful data analysis tool. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the world of Google Sheets formulae, explaining their functions, syntax, and providing practical examples of their usage.

Understanding the Basics of Google Sheets Formulae

Before we dive into the specific formulae, it's crucial to understand the basics. A formula in Google Sheets is a mathematical expression that performs calculations on your data. It begins with an equals sign (=), followed by the formula name and a set of parentheses. Inside these parentheses, you input the arguments, which are the values that the formula will process.

For example, the formula =SUM(A1:A3) will add up the values in cells A1, A2, and A3. The formula name here is 'SUM', and 'A1:A3' is the argument. Understanding this basic structure will make it easier to grasp more complex formulae.

Common Google Sheets Formulae

Google Sheets offers a plethora of formulae, each designed to perform a specific function. Let's explore some of the most commonly used ones.


The SUM, AVERAGE, MIN, and MAX formulae are fundamental in Google Sheets. As their names suggest, SUM adds up a range of numbers, AVERAGE calculates the average, MIN finds the smallest number, and MAX finds the largest. For example, =SUM(B2:B10) will add up all the numbers in cells B2 through B10, while =AVERAGE(B2:B10) will calculate their average.

MIN and MAX work similarly. =MIN(B2:B10) will return the smallest number in the range B2:B10, and =MAX(B2:B10) will return the largest. These formulae are especially useful when dealing with large datasets, as they allow you to quickly summarize your data.


The COUNT formulae are used to count cells in a range. COUNT counts the number of cells that contain numbers, COUNTA counts the number of cells that are not empty, and COUNTIF counts the number of cells that meet a specific condition. For example, =COUNT(B2:B10) will count the number of cells in the range B2:B10 that contain numbers.

COUNTA and COUNTIF are slightly more complex. =COUNTA(B2:B10) will count all non-empty cells in the range B2:B10, while =COUNTIF(B2:B10, ">=10") will count the number of cells in the range B2:B10 that contain a number greater than or equal to 10. These formulae are invaluable when you need to analyze the structure of your data.

Advanced Google Sheets Formulae

While the basic formulae are powerful, Google Sheets also offers advanced formulae that can perform more complex calculations and data manipulations.


VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP are lookup and reference functions. VLOOKUP stands for 'Vertical Lookup', and it searches for a value in the first column of a range, then returns a value in the same row from a column you specify. For example, =VLOOKUP("Apple", A2:B5, 2, FALSE) will search for 'Apple' in the range A2:A5, and return the corresponding value from the second column (B2:B5).

HLOOKUP, or 'Horizontal Lookup', works similarly, but it searches for a value in the first row of a range, then returns a value in the same column from a row you specify. These formulae are essential when you need to cross-reference data.


The IF, AND, and OR formulae are logical functions that return values based on certain conditions. The IF formula checks if a condition is met, and returns one value if it's true, and another if it's false. For example, =IF(A1>10, "Yes", "No") will return 'Yes' if the value in cell A1 is greater than 10, and 'No' otherwise.

AND and OR can be used in conjunction with IF to check multiple conditions. AND returns TRUE if all conditions are met, and OR returns TRUE if at least one condition is met. For example, =IF(AND(A1>10, B1<5), "Yes", "No") will return 'Yes' if the value in cell A1 is greater than 10 and the value in cell B1 is less than 5. These formulae are crucial when you need to make decisions based on your data.


Google Sheets formulae are a powerful tool for data analysis and decision making. By understanding and utilizing these formulae, you can transform your spreadsheets into dynamic and insightful data analysis tools. Whether you're summarizing data with SUM and AVERAGE, analyzing data structure with COUNT and COUNTIF, cross-referencing data with VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP, or making decisions with IF, AND, and OR, Google Sheets has a formula to meet your needs.

Remember, the key to mastering Google Sheets formulae is practice. Don't be afraid to experiment with different formulae and arguments, and see what they can do for your data. Happy spreadsheeting!

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