AVERAGE: Excel Formulae Explained

Microsoft Excel, a powerful tool in the world of data analysis and computation, offers a plethora of functions to simplify complex calculations and data manipulation. One such function is the AVERAGE function, a statistical formula that calculates the arithmetic mean of a range of cells. This article aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the AVERAGE function, its syntax, usage, variations, and potential errors.

Understanding the AVERAGE Function

The AVERAGE function is a built-in formula in Excel that calculates the arithmetic mean of a given set of numbers. It adds all the numbers in the range and then divides the sum by the count of numbers. The function ignores text, logical values, and empty cells in the range.

Its syntax is straightforward: =AVERAGE(number1, [number2], ...). The function can accept up to 255 arguments, where 'number1' is required, and the rest are optional. The arguments can be numbers, cell references, ranges, arrays, or a combination of the above.

Using the AVERAGE Function

Basic Usage

Let's start with a simple example. Suppose we have a range of cells (A1:A5) containing the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. To calculate the average of these numbers, we would use the formula =AVERAGE(A1:A5). Excel would add all the numbers and divide the sum by 5 (the count of numbers), returning the result 3.

The AVERAGE function can also handle multiple ranges and individual numbers. For example, =AVERAGE(A1:A5, 10, B1:B3) would calculate the average of all the numbers in cells A1 through A5, the number 10, and the numbers in cells B1 through B3.

Handling Non-Numeric Values

As mentioned earlier, the AVERAGE function ignores text, logical values, and empty cells. For instance, if the range A1:A5 contains the numbers 1, 2, 3, and the text values 'four' and 'five', the formula =AVERAGE(A1:A5) would return 2, as it only considers the numeric values.

However, if you want to include logical values or text representations of numbers in your calculations, you can use the AVERAGEA function. The syntax is the same as the AVERAGE function, but it treats logical values and text representations of numbers as numbers. TRUE is treated as 1, FALSE as 0, and text numbers as the numbers they represent.

Variations of the AVERAGE Function


Excel also provides variations of the AVERAGE function to handle more complex scenarios. The AVERAGEIF function calculates the average of numbers in a range that meet a specified criterion. Its syntax is =AVERAGEIF(range, criteria, [average_range]).

For instance, =AVERAGEIF(A1:A5, ">2") would calculate the average of the numbers in cells A1 through A5 that are greater than 2. If an 'average_range' is specified, the function averages the numbers in this range corresponding to the cells in 'range' that meet the 'criteria'.

The AVERAGEIFS function works similarly, but it can handle multiple criteria. Its syntax is =AVERAGEIFS(average_range, criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2], ...). It calculates the average of numbers in 'average_range' that meet all the specified criteria.


These are not built-in functions in Excel, but common tasks that can be achieved using a combination of other functions. For example, to calculate the average of numbers in a particular week, month, or year, you can use the AVERAGEIFS function with date criteria.

Potential Errors with the AVERAGE Function

While the AVERAGE function is straightforward to use, there are a few potential pitfalls to be aware of. One common error is the #DIV/0! error, which occurs when the function tries to divide by zero. This happens when there are no numeric values in the specified range.

Another potential issue is the inclusion of hidden or filtered cells in the calculation. By default, the AVERAGE function includes hidden or filtered cells in the calculation. If you want to exclude these cells, you can use the SUBTOTAL or AGGREGATE function instead.

Lastly, remember that the AVERAGE function ignores text values and logical values. If you want to include these in your calculation, consider using the AVERAGEA function or converting the values to numbers.


The AVERAGE function in Excel is a powerful tool for calculating the arithmetic mean of a set of numbers. With its variations like AVERAGEIF and AVERAGEIFS, it can handle a wide range of scenarios and data types. Understanding how to use this function effectively can greatly enhance your data analysis and computation tasks in Excel.

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