ARABIC: Google Sheets Formulae Explained

Understanding the power of Google Sheets and its formulae can transform the way you handle data, perform calculations, and manage projects. This comprehensive guide will delve into the depths of Google Sheets formulae, providing you with the knowledge and skills to harness their full potential.

Introduction to Google Sheets Formulae

Google Sheets, part of Google's suite of productivity tools, is a robust and versatile spreadsheet program. It offers a wide range of features, among which the use of formulae stands out. These formulae, or functions, are pre-defined calculations that carry out specific mathematical operations based on the input provided.

Google Sheets supports a plethora of formulae, each designed to perform a different task. From simple arithmetic operations to complex statistical analyses, these formulae can handle a variety of data processing needs. They can be used individually or combined to create more complex calculations.

Understanding the Syntax

Every Google Sheets formula follows a specific syntax. The formula starts with an equals sign (=), followed by the name of the function, and then the arguments in parentheses. The arguments are the values that the function will process. For example, in the formula =SUM(A1:A10), SUM is the function and A1:A10 is the argument.

It's important to note that Google Sheets is case-insensitive when it comes to function names. So, =sum(A1:A10) is the same as =SUM(A1:A10). However, when referring to cell references or named ranges, case sensitivity applies.

Common Google Sheets Formulae

Google Sheets offers a wide array of formulae, each with its unique functionality. Here, we will explore some of the most commonly used ones, their syntax, and their applications.

These formulae are categorized based on their functionality into arithmetic, statistical, text, date and time, lookup, logical, and financial functions, among others.

Arithmetic Functions

Arithmetic functions are the most basic types of formulae in Google Sheets. They perform simple mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Examples include SUM, PRODUCT, QUOTIENT, etc. For instance, =SUM(A1:A10) adds up all the values in cells A1 through A10.

Other arithmetic functions include AVERAGE, which calculates the average of a range of cells, and COUNT, which counts the number of cells in a range that contain numbers. These functions are especially useful in data analysis and financial calculations.

Statistical Functions

Statistical functions help analyze and interpret data in Google Sheets. They include functions like MAX, MIN, MEDIAN, MODE, STDEV, and more. For example, =MAX(A1:A10) returns the highest value in the range A1:A10.

Other statistical functions include CORREL, which calculates the correlation coefficient between two data sets, and FREQUENCY, which calculates how often values occur within a range of values. These functions are invaluable when dealing with large data sets.

Advanced Google Sheets Formulae

While the basic formulae can handle a wide range of tasks, Google Sheets also offers advanced formulae for more complex operations. These include array functions, dynamic array functions, and custom functions.

These advanced formulae allow for more sophisticated data manipulation and analysis, providing users with powerful tools to handle complex tasks.

Array Functions

Array functions operate on ranges, arrays, or a combination of both. They can perform operations on multiple cells at once, making them powerful tools for data manipulation. Examples include ARRAYFORMULA, SORT, and FILTER.

For instance, =ARRAYFORMULA(A1:C10*B1:B10) multiplies each cell in the range A1:C10 with the corresponding cell in the range B1:B10, and returns an array of results.

Dynamic Array Functions

Dynamic array functions, introduced in Google Sheets in 2020, return a range of values (an array) that spills into multiple cells. Examples include UNIQUE, SORT, FILTER, and SEQUENCE.

For example, =UNIQUE(A1:A10) returns a list of unique values from the range A1:A10. If there are duplicate values in the range, the function only returns one instance of each.

Creating Custom Formulae in Google Sheets

While Google Sheets offers a vast library of pre-defined formulae, there might be situations where you need to create your own custom formula. This is where Google Apps Script comes into play.

Google Apps Script is a JavaScript-based scripting language that lets you add custom functionality to your Google Sheets. With it, you can create custom functions, automate tasks, and even build web applications.

Writing a Custom Function

To write a custom function in Google Sheets, you need to open the Apps Script editor by clicking on Extensions > Apps Script. In the editor, you can write your function using JavaScript syntax.

Once you've written and saved your function, you can use it in your sheets just like any other function. For example, if you've written a function named MYFUNCTION, you can use it in your sheets by typing =MYFUNCTION().


Google Sheets formulae are powerful tools that can significantly enhance your productivity and data analysis capabilities. Whether you're using basic arithmetic functions, advanced array functions, or even custom functions, understanding how these formulae work can help you get the most out of Google Sheets.

With this comprehensive guide, you should now have a solid understanding of Google Sheets formulae and how to use them effectively. So go ahead, dive in, and start exploring the power of Google Sheets formulae!

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