Assuming you have a folder of photos on your computer that you would like to catalog in Excel:
And that's it! You now have a basic catalog of your photos that you can refer back to later.
(Note: If you want to be able to sort your photos by date taken or keywords, you will need to format those columns as "Date" or "Text", respectively. To do this, click on the column header for each column and then go to Format > Cells > Number and choose either "Date" or "Text".)