Financial modelling terms explained

Weighted Average Cost of Capital

Learn all about the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and its significance in financial modeling.

The Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) is a fundamental concept in financial modelling, playing a crucial role in corporate finance and investment decision making. It represents the average rate of return a company is expected to provide to all its stakeholders. This article will delve into the intricacies of WACC, its calculation, and its application in financial modelling.

Understanding the Weighted Average Cost of Capital

The Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) is a calculation of a firm's cost of capital, where each category of capital is proportionately weighted. It includes all sources of capital, including common stock, preferred stock, bonds, and any other long-term debt. In other words, WACC is the average rate of return a company must earn on its existing assets to satisfy its shareholders, bondholders, and lenders.

WACC is crucial in making investment decisions, as it provides a benchmark against which the profitability of potential investments can be measured. If a proposed investment's return exceeds the WACC, the investment can be considered profitable. Conversely, if the return is less than the WACC, the investment may not be worthwhile.

Calculating the Weighted Average Cost of Capital

The calculation of WACC involves several steps, each requiring specific financial data. The formula for WACC is:

WACC = (E/V) * Re + (D/V) * Rd * (1 - Tc)


  • E = Market value of equity
  • V = Total market value of equity and debt
  • Re = Cost of equity
  • D = Market value of debt
  • Rd = Cost of debt
  • Tc = Corporate tax rate

Each component of the WACC formula represents a different aspect of a company's financial structure. The cost of equity (Re) and the cost of debt (Rd) are the returns required by shareholders and lenders, respectively. The market values of equity (E) and debt (D) represent the company's capital structure, and the corporate tax rate (Tc) is used to account for the tax deductibility of interest expenses.

Application of WACC in Financial Modelling

WACC is widely used in financial modelling and valuation methods. It serves as the discount rate in Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis, a popular method for valuing a company or investment. By using WACC as the discount rate, the DCF analysis can present the net present value (NPV) of future cash flows, providing a realistic estimate of an investment's value.

Moreover, WACC is used in economic value added (EVA) calculations to assess a company's economic profit. The EVA is calculated as the net operating profit after taxes minus the capital charge (WACC multiplied by the company's invested capital). If the EVA is positive, the company is creating value. If it's negative, the company is destroying value.

Limitations of WACC

While WACC is a powerful tool in financial modelling, it's not without its limitations. One of the main criticisms is that it assumes a constant cost of capital. In reality, the cost of capital can change over time due to various factors such as changes in interest rates, business risk, and financial risk.

Additionally, WACC is based on several assumptions, including that the company is operating at a steady state and that the capital structure is optimal. If these assumptions don't hold, the WACC calculation may not accurately reflect the cost of capital.


The Weighted Average Cost of Capital is a key concept in financial modelling, providing a benchmark for evaluating investment profitability. Despite its limitations, it remains a fundamental tool in corporate finance and investment decision making. By understanding how WACC is calculated and applied, financial professionals can make more informed decisions and create more accurate financial models.

Elevate Your Financial Strategy with Causal

Understanding WACC is just the beginning. With Causal's business planning platform, you can take your financial modelling to the next level. Automate your finance processes and gain deeper insights with dynamic, driver-based scenarios. Integrate data from various sources for a comprehensive view, and empower stakeholders with interactive dashboards tailored to their needs. Ready to streamline your decision-making and enhance your strategic planning? Sign up today and put your finance on autopilot with Causal.

Get started today with Causal

Start building your own custom financial models, in minutes not days.