Financial modelling terms explained

Scenario Planning

Unravel the complexities of financial modeling terms with our comprehensive guide to scenario planning.

In the realm of finance and business, scenario planning and financial modelling are two critical tools that can help organizations make informed decisions and plan for the future. These tools allow businesses to assess potential risks, evaluate opportunities, and determine the most viable strategies for growth and success. But to fully understand and utilize these tools, it's essential to familiarize yourself with the key terms and concepts involved.

Understanding Scenario Planning

Scenario planning is a strategic planning method that organizations use to make flexible long-term plans. It involves creating a set of various plausible future scenarios based on identified key uncertainties and driving forces in the environment. The goal is to understand how these different scenarios might impact the organization's strategy and operations.

Now, let's delve into some of the key terms associated with scenario planning.


A scenario in this context is a narrative that describes a potential future state of the world. It's not a prediction, but rather a plausible description of what could happen under certain conditions. Scenarios are typically created based on a combination of factual data, educated assumptions, and imaginative thinking.

Scenarios can be qualitative, focusing on narrative descriptions of potential future states, or quantitative, using numerical data to describe potential future states. They can also be normative, describing a desired future state, or exploratory, describing what might happen without intervention.

Driving Forces

Driving forces are the key factors that influence the direction of future scenarios. They can be internal, such as organizational culture or resources, or external, such as technological advancements or economic trends. Identifying and understanding these driving forces is a crucial part of scenario planning.

Driving forces can also be either predetermined, meaning they are likely to occur regardless of other factors, or uncertain, meaning their occurrence or impact is unknown. The interaction between these driving forces helps shape the different scenarios.

Decoding Financial Modelling

Financial modelling is a quantitative analysis tool used by businesses to forecast a business entity's financial performance. Financial models are mathematical representations of a company, financial asset, or any other investment's performance.

Here are some of the key terms you need to know in financial modelling.

Financial Statements

Financial statements are reports prepared by a company's management to present the company's financial performance and position over a specific period. The three key financial statements used in financial modelling are the income statement, the balance sheet, and the cash flow statement.

The income statement shows the company's revenues, costs, and expenses, leading to net income. The balance sheet provides a snapshot of a company's assets, liabilities, and shareholders' equity at a specific point in time. The cash flow statement shows the inflow and outflow of cash within a company, divided into operations, investing, and financing activities.

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF)

Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) is a valuation method used to estimate the value of an investment based on its future cash flows. The idea is that the value of money changes over time, so future cash flows are worth less than immediate cash flows. DCF analysis finds the present value of expected future cash flows using a discount rate.

A key concept in DCF analysis is the discount rate, which is the rate of return required by an investor to invest in a particular project. The discount rate reflects the risk associated with the investment - the higher the risk, the higher the discount rate.


Scenario planning and financial modelling are powerful tools that can help businesses navigate the complex world of finance and strategic planning. Understanding the key terms associated with these tools is the first step towards leveraging them effectively.

Whether you're a business leader, a financial analyst, or just someone interested in the world of finance, gaining a solid understanding of these terms can enhance your ability to make informed decisions and plan for the future.

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