Financial modelling terms explained

Return On Capital Employed

Learn all about Return On Capital Employed (ROCE) and other essential financial modeling terms in this comprehensive article.

Understanding financial modelling terms can be a daunting task, especially when it comes to metrics that are crucial to evaluating a company's performance. One such metric is the Return on Capital Employed (ROCE). This article aims to demystify this term, providing a comprehensive understanding of its meaning, calculation, and application in financial modelling.

Understanding Return on Capital Employed

The Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) is a financial ratio that measures a company's profitability and the efficiency with which its capital is used. In other words, ROCE indicates how well a company is generating profits from its capital.

Capital employed refers to the total amount of capital that a company has utilized in order to generate profits. It is the sum of shareholders' equity and debt liabilities; it could also be understood as the total assets of a company minus its current liabilities. The ROCE ratio is thus a useful measure to understand how efficiently a company is using its capital.

Importance of ROCE

ROCE is a crucial metric in financial modelling and analysis as it provides an indication of a company's financial performance and the potential profitability of its investments. A higher ROCE indicates more efficient use of capital, which often translates to higher profit margins.

Furthermore, ROCE is often used by investors and analysts to compare the performance of different companies within the same industry. Since it considers both equity and debt, it provides a more comprehensive view of a company's profitability than other metrics.

Calculating Return on Capital Employed

The formula to calculate ROCE is:

ROCE = Earnings Before Interest and Tax (EBIT) / Capital Employed

This formula gives us the ratio of a company's operating profit (EBIT) to its capital employed, expressed as a percentage. Let's break down the components of this formula.

Earnings Before Interest and Tax (EBIT)

EBIT is the profit that a company has made before paying interest and taxes. It is a measure of a company's profitability from its core operations, excluding the costs of capital structure and tax expenses. This makes EBIT a good measure of operational efficiency.

EBIT can be calculated from the income statement by adding back the interest and tax expenses to the net income.

Capital Employed

As mentioned earlier, capital employed is the total amount of capital that a company has utilized to generate profits. It can be calculated in two ways:

  1. Total Assets – Current Liabilities
  2. Shareholders' Equity + Debt

Both methods should yield the same result and represent the total resources that a company has at its disposal to generate profits.

Interpreting ROCE

Once the ROCE is calculated, the next step is to interpret this ratio. As a general rule of thumb, a higher ROCE is better as it indicates that the company is efficient at generating profits from its capital.

However, it's important to compare the ROCE of a company with its competitors in the same industry. This is because different industries have different capital requirements and profit margins, which can affect the ROCE.


Another useful comparison is between the ROCE and the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC). If the ROCE is higher than the WACC, it indicates that the company is generating a return on its capital that is higher than the cost of that capital. This is a positive sign, suggesting that the company is creating value for its shareholders.

On the other hand, if the ROCE is lower than the WACC, it indicates that the company is not generating a sufficient return on its capital. This could be a red flag for investors, suggesting that the company may not be a good investment.

Limitations of ROCE

While ROCE is a useful metric in financial modelling and analysis, it is not without its limitations. One of the main limitations is that it does not consider the risk associated with a company's capital structure.

Companies with a high level of debt may have a high ROCE, but this does not necessarily mean that they are efficient at generating profits. The high ROCE could be due to the high risk associated with the company's capital structure.

Furthermore, ROCE does not consider the timing of cash flows. A company may have a high ROCE but if its cash flows are not consistent, it may face problems in meeting its financial obligations.

In conclusion, while ROCE is a valuable tool in financial analysis, it should not be used in isolation. It should be used in conjunction with other financial metrics and qualitative factors to get a comprehensive view of a company's financial performance.

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