Financial modelling terms explained

Leasehold Improvements (LHI)

Unravel the complexities of Leasehold Improvements (LHI) with this comprehensive financial modelling guide.

Understanding the intricacies of financial modelling can be a complex task. One of the key terms that often comes up in this field is Leasehold Improvements (LHI). This term refers to the enhancements made to a leased property by a tenant. These improvements can include anything from installing partitions, ceilings, and flooring, to electrical and plumbing works. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the details of LHI, its implications in financial modelling, and how it affects the financial statements of a company.

Understanding Leasehold Improvements (LHI)

Leasehold improvements, often abbreviated as LHI, are the alterations made to rental properties to suit the needs of the tenant. These modifications are usually made to commercial properties and are specific to the requirements of the tenant's business operations. It's important to note that these improvements are not transferrable and remain part of the property even after the lease term ends.

The cost of these improvements is usually borne by the tenant. However, in some cases, the landlord may agree to cover some or all of the costs, especially if the improvements increase the value or longevity of the property. The agreement between the tenant and the landlord regarding the cost of improvements is typically outlined in the lease agreement.

Accounting for Leasehold Improvements

In financial accounting, leasehold improvements are considered a capital expenditure. This means that they are recorded as an asset on the balance sheet and depreciated over the shorter of the lease term or the useful life of the improvements. The depreciation method used can vary depending on the accounting standards followed by the company.

However, it's important to note that if a lease contains a clause that requires the tenant to remove the improvements at the end of the lease, the cost of removal is also considered a liability. This liability is usually recorded at the time the improvements are made and is amortized over the lease term.

Implications of LHI in Financial Modelling

In financial modelling, understanding the impact of leasehold improvements is crucial. These improvements can significantly affect the company's cash flow, balance sheet, and income statement. Therefore, they must be accurately accounted for in the financial model.

From a cash flow perspective, the cost of leasehold improvements is considered a cash outflow in the year it is incurred. This reduces the company's cash balance for that year. However, the subsequent depreciation of these improvements is a non-cash expense, which increases the company's cash flow from operations in the following years.

Effect on Balance Sheet

On the balance sheet, leasehold improvements are recorded as a fixed asset. This increases the total assets of the company. However, as these improvements are depreciated, the value of the asset decreases, reducing the total assets over time. If the lease agreement requires the tenant to remove the improvements at the end of the lease, a liability is also recorded, increasing the total liabilities of the company.

Effect on Income Statement

On the income statement, the depreciation of leasehold improvements is recorded as an expense. This reduces the company's net income. However, since depreciation is a non-cash expense, it does not affect the company's cash flow from operations.


Leasehold improvements are a crucial aspect of financial modelling, especially for companies that lease their business premises. Understanding how these improvements are accounted for and how they affect the financial statements is essential for accurate financial modelling. By considering the cost, depreciation, and potential removal of these improvements, financial analysts can ensure that their models accurately reflect the financial position of the company.

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