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Financial modelling terms explained

Cost-volume-profit analysis (CVP) is a technique for evaluating the short- and long-term financial performance of one or more products or services.

Cost Volume Profit Analysis (CVPA) is a financial model that calculates the profitability of a business by taking into account the impact of fixed and variable costs on profits, and the relationship between sales volume and profits. The model can be used to identify the break-even point for a business, and to help managers make decisions about pricing, production levels, and other strategic decisions.

The purpose of cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis is to examine the relationship between a company’s costs, its sales volume, and its profits. CVP analysis can be used to help a company determine the effect of changes in its costs, sales volume, and prices on its profits.

There are three steps in performing a CVP analysis:

1. Calculate the company’s fixed costs, variable costs, and sales revenue.

2. Determine the company’s breakeven point—the point at which its profits are zero.

3. Calculate the company’s profit or loss at different levels of sales.

Fixed costs are costs that do not change with changes in the company’s sales volume. These costs include items such as rent and insurance. Variable costs are costs that do change with changes in the company’s sales volume. These costs include items such as the cost of materials and wages. Sales revenue is the amount of money the company receives from selling its products or services.

The breakeven point is the point at which the company’s total costs are equal to its total sales revenue. This point is important because it tells the company how much sales it needs to reach in order to break even—that is, to have no profit or loss.

Profit or loss is the difference between a company’s total revenue and its total costs. This difference can be either positive (a profit) or negative (a loss).

To perform a CVP analysis, a company first needs to calculate its fixed costs, variable costs, and sales revenue. Fixed costs are costs that do not change with changes in the company’s sales volume. These costs include items such as rent and insurance. Variable costs are costs that do change with changes in the company’s sales volume. These costs include items such as the cost of materials and wages. Sales revenue is the amount of money the company receives from selling its products or services.

The company then determines its breakeven point—the point at which its profits are zero. To do this, the company calculates the total cost of producing a given number of units of product and then divides this number by the unit price. This calculation gives the company the breakeven point in terms of sales revenue.

The company can then use this information to calculate its profit or loss at different levels of sales. For example, if the company knows its fixed costs, variable costs, and sales price, it can calculate its profit or loss at different levels of sales. This information can help the company make decisions about pricing and production.

There are a few different groups of people that commonly use cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis. The first group is managers. Managers use CVP analysis to make decisions about pricing, production, and other strategic decisions. The second group is investors. Investors use CVP analysis to understand a company's profitability and to make investment decisions. The third group is lenders. Lenders use CVP analysis to understand a company's ability to repay debt.

When performing cost volume profit analysis, it is important to keep in mind the following:

1. Fixed costs remain fixed, regardless of the level of sales.

2. Variable costs will change in direct proportion to the level of sales.

3. The contribution margin is the amount of revenue remaining after variable costs have been deducted from sales revenue.

4. To make a profit, the contribution margin must be greater than fixed costs.

5. The break-even point is the point at which sales revenue equals total costs (fixed and variable).

6. The margin of safety is the amount by which sales revenue can decline before the business begins to lose money.

7. It is important to use the correct volume units in the analysis (e.g. number of units, revenue, etc.).

8. The results of a cost volume profit analysis will be affected by the assumptions made about the future.

CVP analysis is also known as contribution margin analysis, contribution income statement analysis, and contribution margin ratio analysis. This analysis tool helps managers assess the profitability of products and services by calculating the contribution margin (CM) for each. The CM is the difference between sales revenue and the variable costs associated with producing a unit of sales. Once the CM for each product or service is known, the manager can then determine which products or services are the most and least profitable and make decisions accordingly.

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