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When it comes to making investment decisions, both individuals and businesses need to understand the cost of capital. The cost of capital is the minimum rate of return that a business must earn on its investment projects to satisfy its owners. There are two main ways to calculate the cost of capital: the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and the capital asset pricing model (CAPM).

WACC is the average of the costs of all the different sources of capital a company has, weighted by the proportion of each source in the company's capital structure. The main sources of capital are debt and equity. Debt is usually cheaper than equity, so the WACC will be lower if a company has a higher proportion of debt in its capital structure. The WACC is the minimum return that a company must earn on its investment projects to satisfy its owners and creditors.

CAPM is a model that calculates the expected return of an investment based on its beta, which is a measure of the volatility of the investment. The higher the beta, the higher the expected return. The CAPM is used to price assets and to calculate the cost of equity. It is a widely used model, but it has some limitations. For example, it assumes that markets are efficient, which is not always the case.

The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) is the average of the costs of all the different sources of capital a company has, weighted by the proportion of each source in the company's capital structure. The main sources of capital are debt and equity. Debt is usually cheaper than equity, so the WACC will be lower if a company has a higher proportion of debt in its capital structure. The WACC is the minimum return that a company must earn on its investment projects to satisfy its owners and creditors.

To calculate the WACC, you need to know the cost of each source of capital and the proportion of each source in the company's capital structure. The cost of debt is the after-tax cost of borrowing. The cost of equity is the expected return on the equity shares. The proportion of each source in the capital structure is the weighting factor. The WACC is calculated by multiplying the cost of each source of capital by its weighting factor and then adding the results together.

The WACC is a good measure of the cost of capital for a company as a whole. However, it is important to remember that the WACC is only an average. The actual cost of capital for a particular project may be higher or lower than the WACC. The WACC is also a good measure of the cost of capital for a project with a mix of debt and equity financing. However, it is not a good measure of the cost of equity for a project that is financed entirely with equity.

The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is a model that calculates the expected return of an investment based on its beta, which is a measure of the volatility of the investment. The higher the beta, the higher the expected return. The CAPM is used to price assets and to calculate the cost of equity. It is a widely used model, but it has some limitations. For example, it assumes that markets are efficient, which is not always the case.

The CAPM is based on the idea that investors require a higher return for investing in a more risky asset. The risk of an asset is measured by its beta. Beta is a measure of the volatility of an asset's return. A high beta means that the asset's return is more volatile than the market, and a low beta means that the asset's return is less volatile than the market. The market risk premium is the extra return that investors require for investing in a more risky asset. The market risk premium is the difference between the expected return on the market portfolio and the risk-free rate.

The CAPM formula is: expected return = risk-free rate + beta x (market return - risk-free rate).

The expected return is the return that investors expect to receive from the asset. The risk-free rate is the return that investors expect to receive from an investment with no risk. The market return is the return that investors expect to receive from the market portfolio. The market portfolio is a portfolio that contains all the assets in the market. The market portfolio is also known as the market index.

The CAPM is a good measure of the cost of equity for a project that is financed entirely with equity. However, it is not a good measure of the cost of capital for a project with a mix of debt and equity financing. The reason for this is that the CAPM only takes into account the risk of the equity portion of the project. It does not take into account the risk of the debt portion of the project. This means that the CAPM will overestimate the cost of equity for a project with a mix of debt and equity financing.

The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) are two ways to calculate the cost of capital. WACC is the average of the costs of all the different sources of capital a company has, weighted by the proportion of each source in the company's capital structure. The main sources of capital are debt and equity. Debt is usually cheaper than equity, so the WACC will be lower if a company has a higher proportion of debt in its capital structure. The WACC is the minimum return that a company must earn on its investment projects to satisfy its owners and creditors.

CAPM is a model that calculates the expected return of an investment based on its beta, which is a measure of the volatility of the investment. The higher the beta, the higher the expected return. The CAPM is used to price assets and to calculate the cost of equity. It is a widely used model, but it has some limitations. For example, it assumes that markets are efficient, which is not always the case.

The WACC is a good measure of the cost of capital for a company as a whole. However, it is important to remember that the WACC is only an average. The actual cost of capital for a particular project may be higher or lower than the WACC. The WACC is also a good measure of the cost of capital for a project with a mix of debt and equity financing. However, it is not a good measure of the cost of equity for a project that is financed entirely with equity.

The CAPM is a good measure of the cost of equity for a project that is financed entirely with equity. However, it is not a good measure of the cost of capital for a project with a mix of debt and equity financing. The reason for this is that the CAPM only takes into account the risk of the equity portion of the project. It does not take into account the risk of the debt portion of the project. This means that the CAPM will overestimate the cost of equity for a project with a mix of debt and equity financing.

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